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Island Vulnerability Borders
https://www.islandvulnerability.org/borders.html

See also Tripoints.


Island Vulnerability explores the challenges which isolated geographies face when dealing with risk and disasters by examining the processes which create, maintain, and could be used to reduce their vulnerability. Border regions can demonstrate many risk, disaster, development, and vulnerability challenges which are similar to islands, although some capital cities are border settlements such as Asunción, Lomé, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. Comparisons and contrasts between islands (of different types) and borders (of different types) require more work.

This Island Vulnerability Borders page provides examples of borders, illustrating that, at times, an artificial line is drawn, irrespective of hazards, vulnerabilities, risks, disasters, and resiliences, potentially influencing them all through arbitrary changes in management approaches. In cases where the border conforms to a physical feature--for example, delineated by a river or mountain range--issues of transboundary hazard, vulnerability, risk, and disaster still emerge. A river might flood both banks of a river with a similar hazard, but a disaster might occur on one bank but not the other indicating different vulnerabilities and different resilience needs.

Borders:

See also Tripoints.

The illustration of a border here does not imply any comment on, support for, or refutation of any disputes.


Austria - Italy

Austria - Italy border between Thörl-Maglern and Tarvisio.

Looking from Thörl-Maglern, Austria toward Tarvisio, Italy through an old checkpoint.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Austria - Italy border between Thörl-Maglern and Tarvisio.

Tarvisio, Italy on the left and Thörl-Maglern, Austria on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Austria - Italy border between Thörl-Maglern and Tarvisio.

Tarvisio, Italy on the right and Thörl-Maglern, Austria on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Austria - Italy border between Thörl-Maglern and Tarvisio.

Looking from Tarvisio, Italy toward Thörl-Maglern, Austria through an old checkpoint.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)



Austria - Liechtenstein

Austria - Liechtenstein border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with customs officials, looking from Liechtenstein into Austria.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with the potential for customs officials, but no one was there.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with vicious cows on guard, looking from Austria into Liechtenstein (above) and the border markers (below).
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Austria - Liechtenstein border


Austria - Liechtenstein border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with vicious plants and stones on guard, looking from Liechtenstein into Austria (above) and the border markers (below).
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Austria - Liechtenstein border



Austria - Slovakia

Austria - Slovakia border

Stripes: Looking across Austrian fields towards Slovakia's capital, Bratislava.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)


Austria - Slovakia border

Looking from Slovakia into Austria with the stone monument and signs marking the border. The legs of two soldiers walking towards me are visible. They told me to stay on the Slovak side, but I explained that I was walking from Slovakia into Austria. They requested my passport, glanced at each stamp in it, and then watched me photographing the border until I wandered over to the Austrian customs checkpoint.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)


Austria - Slovakia border

Looking from Austria into Slovakia with the stone monument marking the border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)


Austria - Slovakia border

Looking along the Austria - Slovakia border marked by the stone with the red top.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)



Austria - Slovenia

Austria - Slovenia border on the hill toward the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck).

Looking from Slovenia into Austria across the border near the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck).
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Austria - Slovenia border on the hill toward the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck).

Looking along the Austria - Slovenia border, near the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck).
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Austria - Slovenia border on the hill toward the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck) with a sign marking the border fence.

Looking from Austria into Slovenia across the border fence near the tripoint with Italy (Dreiländereck).
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)



Austria - Switzerland

Austria - Switzerland border

Austria - Switzerland border, marked on the south side of the bridge over the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Switzerland border

Austria - Switzerland border, marked on the north side of the bridge over the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Switzerland border

Austria - Switzerland border, looking along the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)



Belgium - France

Belgium - France border at Menen.

Belgium - France border at Menen, looking from France into Belgium.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - France border at Menen.

Belgium - France border at Menen, looking from Belgium into France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - France border at Menen.

Belgium - France border at Menen, with Belgium on the left and France on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - France border at Menen.

Belgium - France border at Menen, looking from Belgium across into France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - France border at Menen.

Belgium - France border marker at Menen, looking from France into Belgium.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Belgium - Germany

Belgium - Germany border along Vennbahn.

Vennbahn: The path is in Belgium with Germany on either side.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Germany border along Vennbahn.

Vennbahn: The path is in Belgium with Germany on either side.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Vennbahn: Belgium - Germany border.

Vennbahn: Looking from Germany across the path in Belgium and then into Germany again.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Vennbahn and a vertical border: Looking from the path in Belgium down to Germany.

Vennbahn and a vertical border: Looking from the path in Belgium down to Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Vennbahn and a vertical border: Looking from Germany up to the path in Belgium.

Vennbahn and a vertical border: Looking from Germany up to the path in Belgium.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Vennbahn: Looking from the path in Belgium into Germany.

Vennbahn: Looking from the path in Belgium into Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Germany border at Rückschlag, Monschau.

Rückschlag, Monschau: a small exclave of Germany inside Belgium, with one corner and the border marked by the water-filled ditch.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Germany border.

Looking across the road in Germany to the forest in Belgium.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Germany border.

Looking from Schwerzfelder Straße, Roetgen, Germany into the Belgian forest.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Germany border.

Looking from the Belgian forest toward Schwerzfelder Straße, Roetgen, Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Belgium - Luxembourg

Belgium - Luxembourg border.

Standing on the border with Belgium on the right and Luxembourg on the left, beside the Europe Monument near Ouren.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Luxembourg border.

Looking from Belgium into Luxembourg at the Europe Monument near Ouren.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Luxembourg border.

Looking from Luxembourg into Belgium at the Europe Monument near Ouren.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Luxembourg border.

Looking from Belgium into Luxembourg near Rodange.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Belgium - Netherlands

Belgium - Netherlands border

Belgium - Netherlands border in Baarle.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

Relax across the Belgium - Netherlands border, marked by the darker stones, in Baarle.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

A car parked across the Belgium (on left) - Netherlands (on right) border in Baarle.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

A plaque along the Belgium (on the left) - Netherlands (on the right) border at Baarle.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

The Belgium (on right) - Netherlands (on left) border in Baarle, marked by the metal circles down the middle of the road.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

The Belgium (on right) - Netherlands (on left) border at Baarle runs through an art gallery.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

The Belgium (on right) - Netherlands (on left) border at Baarle runs through an art gallery.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Belgium - Netherlands border

The Belgium (on right) - Netherlands (on left) border by Gemmenich with an 1843 border marker.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Belgium - Netherlands border

The Belgium (on left) - Netherlands (on right) border by Gemmenich runs along this lane called Hoogweg.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Bulgaria - Romania

Bulgaria - Romania border

Looking along the border with Bulgaria on the left and Romania on the right, at the border crossing between Durankulak, Bulgaria and Vama Veche, Romania.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

Looking at a border post with Bulgaria on the right and Romania on the left, at the border crossing between Durankulak, Bulgaria and Vama Veche, Romania.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

Top-down view of the same border post in the previous photo.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

And the same border post again looking from Romania into Bulgaria.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

Looking at a border post with Bulgaria on the left and Romania on the right, at the border crossing between Durankulak, Bulgaria and Vama Veche, Romania.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

Top-down view of the same border post in the previous photo.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

And the same border post again looking from Bulgaria into Romania.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)


Bulgaria - Romania border

Looking from Vama Veche, Romania across the fields to Bulgaria where a brush fire was burning.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2019)



Canada - U.S.A.

Canada - U.S.A. border at Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border at Niagara Falls, with New York on the left and Ontario on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border underneath the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls: Looking from Ontario across to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls: the line between the different concretes delineates the border, with New York on the bottom (with the grate) and Ontario at the top.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

A light pole marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls. From the Canadian side, it cost fifty cents (in either currency) to walk onto the bridge! But it was free from the American side.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Plaque marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Plaque marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. border at the St. Clair River

Canada - U.S.A. border at the St. Clair River with Ontario on the left and Michigan on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2006)


Canada - U.S.A. border at the St. Clair River and Lake Huron

Canada - U.S.A. border looking across the south end of Lake Huron from Ontario into Michigan.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2006)


Canada - U.S.A. border across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York

Canada - U.S.A. border, looking across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


Canada - U.S.A. border across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York

Canada - U.S.A. border, looking across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


Canada - U.S.A. border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands

Canada - U.S.A. border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands. Looking from Ontario to New York (above) and from New York to Canadian customs and immigration in Ontario (below)
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)

Canada - U.S.A. border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands



China - Hong Kong

China - Hong Kong border

Looking towards China from Hong Kong from Lok Ma Chau station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong border

The pedestrian crossing point between China and Hong Kong in Lok Ma Chau station as viewed from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong border

The bridge of San Sham Road between China and Hong Kong, seen from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong border

The bridge of San Sham Road between China and Hong Kong, seen from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong border

Looking along the railway tracks from Hong Kong into China at Lo Wu station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)



China - Macau

China - Macau border

Immigration checks on the north side of Macau for entering into China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau border

Looking from Sun Yat Sen park in Macau towards Zhuhai Railway Station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau border

Looking from Sun Yat Sen park in Macau towards China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau border

Looking from Barra, Macau into China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)



Croatia - Italy

Croatia - Italy border looking from the Marano Lagoon across Isola Marinetta and Isola di Sant' Andrea in Italy, and then the Gulf of Trieste, to the mountains of Croatia.

Croatia - Italy border looking from the Marano Lagoon across Isola Marinetta, Italy to the mountains of Croatia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)



Denmark - Sweden

Aerial view of the Øresund/Öresund Bridge connecting Denmark and Sweden.

The Øresund/Öresund Bridge connecting Denmark on the left to Sweden on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2010)


Train travel across the Øresund/Öresund Bridge from Denmark looking into Sweden.

Train travel across the Øresund/Öresund Bridge from Denmark looking into Sweden.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)



France - Germany

France - Germany border

France - Germany border marked by white lines in the road, looking from Germany towards France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


France - Germany border

France - Germany border marked by white lines in the road, looking from France towards Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


France - Germany border

Looking south along the France - Germany border marked by the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


France - Germany border

Looking north along the France - Germany border marked by the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



France - Luxembourg

France - Luxembourg border

France - Luxembourg border marker near Rodange.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


France - Luxembourg border

La Chiers marking the border with France on the left and Luxembourg on the right, near Rodange.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


France - Luxembourg border

Border marker with France on the right and Luxembourg on the left, near Schengen.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



France - Monaco

France - Monaco border

France - Monaco border looking from Monaco into France. The car straddles the border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco border

France - Monaco border looking from France into Monaco.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco border

Looking at the France - Monaco border with France on the right and Monaco on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco border

France - Monaco border, looking from France down the steps towards Monaco.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)



France - Switzerland

Switzerland - France border

A closed checkpoint of the Switzerland - France border looking from France towards Switzerland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France border

After having crossed the closed checkpoint of the Switzerland - France border, looking from Switzerland towards France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France border

Switzerland - France border with customs.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France border

A ditch marking the Switzerland - France border, looking from France towards Switzerland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Germany - Luxembourg

Germany - Luxembourg border

Looking across the River Our from Luxembourg into Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Germany - Luxembourg border

Looking across the River Moselle near Schengen from Luxembourg into Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Germany - Luxembourg border

Bridge across the River Moselle near Schengen, looking into Germany from Luxembourg.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Germany - Netherlands

Looking along the Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border at Vaals.

Looking along the Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border at Vaals. The street is appropriately named Grensstraat.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Looking from Netherlands into Germany near Grensstraat, Vaals.

Looking from Netherlands into Germany near Grensstraat, Vaals.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border near Bad Nieuweschans, looking along Westerwoldse Aa.

Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border near Bad Nieuweschans, looking along Westerwoldse Aa.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Looking from Germany into Netherlands near Bad Nieuweschans, across the Wymeerer Sieltief to Europaweg.

Looking from Germany into Netherlands near Bad Nieuweschans, across the Wymeerer Sieltief to Europaweg.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border near Bad Nieuweschans, looking along Europaweg.

Germany (on the right) - Netherlands (on the left) border near Bad Nieuweschans, looking along Europaweg.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Looking from Netherlands into Germany as Europaweg changes to Neuschanzer Straße near Bad Nieuweschans.

Looking from Netherlands into Germany as Europaweg changes to Neuschanzer Straße near Bad Nieuweschans.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Germany - Poland

Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Bridge over the Oder River looking from Küstrin-Kietz, Germany into Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Bridge over the Oder River looking from Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland into Küstrin-Kietz, Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Viewing the bridge connecting Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland (right) and Küstrin-Kietz, Germany (left).
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

On the bridge connecting Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland (left) and Küstrin-Kietz, Germany (right).
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Looking across Oder River and along the bridge from Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland to Küstrin-Kietz, Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Looking across the Oder River from Küstrin-Kietz, Germany into Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Looking across the Oder River from the fortress at Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland into Küstrin-Kietz, Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Looking across the Oder River from a Polish border marker at Kostrzyn nad Odrą to a German border marker at Küstrin-Kietz.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)


Border along the Oder between Küstrin-Kietz, Germany and Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.

Looking across the Oder River from a German border marker at Küstrin-Kietz towards Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Poland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2023)



Germany - Switzerland

Germany - Switzerland border

Border checkpoint looking from Switzerland towards Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Hungary - Slovakia

Standing on the border on the bridge over the Danube River with Hungary on the left and Slovakia on the right.

Standing on the border on the bridge over the Danube River with Hungary on the left and Slovakia on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


A cyclist partly in Esztergom, Hungary and partly in Štúrovo, Slovakia.

Cycling on the border from Esztergom, Hungary on the right to Štúrovo, Slovakia on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


Two people on the banks of Hungary's Danube River shoreline.

Relaxing in Esztergom, Hungary while contemplating Štúrovo, Slovakia across the Danube River.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


The view from atop the hill of the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River to Štúrovo, Slovakia.

The view from near the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River to Štúrovo, Slovakia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


Looking from Prímás/Primate Island beside Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River to Štúrovo, Slovakia.

Looking from Prímás/Primate Island beside Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River to Štúrovo, Slovakia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


Looking at Prímás/Primate Island beside Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River from Štúrovo, Slovakia.

Looking at Prímás/Primate Island beside Esztergom, Hungary across the Danube River from Štúrovo, Slovakia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


Viewing the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary from the end of the bridge in Štúrovo, Slovakia.

Viewing the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary from the end of the bridge in Štúrovo, Slovakia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)


Viewing the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary from the Danube River promenade of Štúrovo, Slovakia.

Viewing the basilica of Esztergom, Hungary from the Danube River promenade of Štúrovo, Slovakia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2022)



Ireland - U.K.

Ireland - U.K. border

Looking from County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland towards Swanlinbar, Eire. The border is marked by the end of the new road surface on the U.K. side and the start of permission to pass on the Irish side. Fortunately, both countries request that you drive on the left side of the road.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 1997)



Italy - San Marino

Italy - San Marino border

Near San Marino's upper cable car station as the sun sets across Italy.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - San Marino border

View from San Marino's Giardino Panoramico across Italy to the Adriatic Sea.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - San Marino border

Looking from San Marino to Italy along Via Decima Gualdaria.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - San Marino border

Looking from Italy to San Marino along Via Decima Gualdaria.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - San Marino border

Straddling the border along Via Decima Gualdaria: Italy on the left, San Marino on the right, and the Adriatic Sea in the background.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - San Marino border

Looking from Italy's Strada Forfaneletto to San Marino's historic centre and Mount Titano.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)



Italy - Slovenia

Italy - Slovenia border

Looking along the Italy - Slovenia border, with Via Vittorio Veneto, Gorizia, Italy on the right and Goriška ulica, Šempeter pri Gorici, Slovenia on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - Slovenia border

Ulica Franca Kramarja, Šempeter pri Gorici, Slovenia with the wall marking the border with Italy.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - Slovenia border

Italy - Slovenia border, looking from Tarvisio, Italy into Rateče, Slovenia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - Slovenia border

Italy - Slovenia border, looking from Rateče, Slovenia into Tarvisio, Italy.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)


Italy - Slovenia border

Italy - Slovenia border, looking down a hill with a border marker visible in the grass.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2024)



Italy - Switzerland

Italy - Switzerland border

Looking from Switzerland towards Italy.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Latvia - Lithuania

Looking from Lithuania into Latvia from the Vilnius-Riga bus.

Looking from Lithuania into Latvia from the Vilnius-Riga bus.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


A building in Lithuania at the border, with Latvia in the background.

A building in Lithuania at the border, with Latvia in the background.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


The fields of Latvia change to the fields of Lithuania across the River Mūša.

The fields of Latvia change to the fields of Lithuania across the River Mūša.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Looking across the Klykolių tvenkinys at Klykoliai from Lithuania into Latvia.

Looking across the Klykolių tvenkinys at Klykoliai from Lithuania into Latvia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Looking along the border with Lithuania on the right and Latvia on the left.

Looking along the border with Lithuania on the right and Latvia on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


The border line in the road, with Lithuania on the right, Latvia on the left.

Lithuania on the right, Latvia on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Driving on a road along the border, in Lithuania, beside Latvia.

Driving in Lithuania with Latvia on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Looking along the road from Lithuania into Latvia.

Looking from Lithuania into Latvia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)


Looking along the road from Latvia into Lithuania.

Looking from Latvia into Lithuania.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2018)



Liechtenstein - Switzerland

Various vantage points of the Liechtenstein - Switzerland border along the Rhine River.
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Switzerland - Liechtenstein border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein border

Austria - Liechtenstein border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein border


Malaysia - Singapore

Malaysia - Singapore border

Looking from Woodlands, Singapore to Johor, Malaysia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore border

The apartment buildings of Singapore as seen from Johor, Malaysia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore border

On board a bus in Malaysia, looking down at the causeway that crosses into Singapore.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore border

The Malaysia-Singapore border on the Woodlands-Johor causeway.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)



Norway - Sweden

Norway - Sweden border

At Svinesund with Norway on the left and Sweden on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)



Contact Island Vulnerability.


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