New Zealand / Aotearoa
Island Vulnerability explores the challenges which isolated geographies face when dealing with risk and disasters by examining the processes which create, maintain, and could be used to reduce their vulnerability. This page provides information on vulnerability issues in New Zealand / Aotearoa:
This page provides information specifically related to vulnerability (including risk, disasters, and sustainability), rather than general information such as travel details, a country profile, all government websites, or history. The information provided is not intended to be comprehensive, but is indicative of the vulnerabilities which New Zealand / Aotearoa experiences and how sustainable solutions might be developed and implemented. The publications listed reflect those in the library of Island Vulnerability.
Bridge Damage Following Cyclone Bola Which Hit New Zealand on 7
New Zealand's Islands
New Zealand has islands with three political statuses:
1. Islands which are part of New Zealand, for example:
Danger! Piglet crossing near Port Hutt on Chatham Island.
Quail Island in Lyttelton Harbour.
As well, the Ross Dependency on Antarctica is constitutionally part of New Zealand according to New Zealand's government.
2. Full self-government in free association with New Zealand:
3. Self-administering territory of New Zealand (but moving towards self-governance in free association with New Zealand):
New Zealand's Responsibility to Pacific Island Vulnerability
By Ilan Kelman
I was seeking to explore the role of New Zealand in the Pacific island community, particularly in terms of supporting research into island vulnerability in the region. An impetus towards such research would be New Zealand's strong ties to the Pacific and international island communities. When I mentioned this issue, a reaction from some island and vulnerability researchers and practitioners was that I should consider not only New Zealand's ties, but also New Zealand's responsibility to the Pacific islands in terms of understanding and reducing island vulnerability in the region.
New Zealand contributes extensively to programmes for reducing Pacific island vulnerability. For example, NZAID (New Zealand Agency for International Development / Nga Hoe Tuputupu-mai-tawhiti) provides more than one-third of the core budget of SOPAC (South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission) in addition to funds for activities outside the normal budget. According to NZAID, "SOPAC "has also been designated the lead agency for disaster management in the Pacific". Similarly, many Pacific islanders travel to New Zealand for secondary education, often supported by programmes funded by New Zealand's Government.
Therefore, I asked some New Zealanders their thoughts on New Zealand's involvement in Pacific island vulnerability reduction. My query particularly focused on the mixture of influences involving ties to the region, responsibility to the region, and kinship with other vulnerable islands. The two levels of the question are (i) does New Zealand feel responsibility and (ii) should New Zealand feel responsibility?
New Zealander Responses
My Reaction to Response 1
The following article is based on the above discussion:
Kelman, I. 2004. "Responsibility to Pacific Island Risk Management?". RiskPost: The Newsletter of the New Zealand Society for Risk Management, issue 4, no. 2 (August), pp. 8-9.
New Zealand's fascinating, beautiful, and dynamic physical geography produces an ideal setting for investigating and understanding how humanity's decisions and behaviour create disasters from normal environmental phenomena such as earthquakes, rivers overflowing, volcanic activity, rainfall, and fog. The consequences include internationally-renowned research, policy, and practice in New Zealand related to living sustainably with nature.
As well, New Zealand's position in the South Pacific, plus being a country comprising relatively small islands, leads to strong links with and interests in the international island community. Aside from New Zealand's history of involvement in Pacific island affairs, two island countries, the Cook Islands and Niue, are self-governing territories in free association with New Zealand, while Tokelau is a self-administering territory moving towards self-governance in free association with New Zealand.
New Zealand contributes extensively to programmes for managing risks on Pacific islands, not only through emergency relief aid and peace-keeping, but also in terms of vulnerability reduction programmes, long-term development, and education. NZAID http://www.nzaid.govt.nz provides more than one-third of the core budget of SOPAC http://www.sopac.org, which is the lead Pacific island agency for disaster and risk management, in addition to funds for activities outside the normal budget. Similarly, many Pacific islanders travel to New Zealand for secondary and tertiary education, often supported by programmes funded by New Zealand's government.
The links are clear, as are the historical and geographical reasons for these links. Does an additional factor exist, that of responsibility?
Does a moral imperative exist for New Zealand's involvement in Pacific small island risk management, most likely due to history and proximity? It is perhaps unfair, inappropriate, and going too far to suggest that the Pacific islands have a fundamental right to assistance from New Zealand for risk management. But how far does NZAID's motto "towards a safe and just world" permit the interpretation that obligations, not simply voluntary opportunities, exist for New Zealand (beyond NZAID and MFAT) to be involved in increasing safety and justice in the Pacific region?
Of course, the impetus for being extensively involved in small island risk management could be selfish. Safe and stable neighbours naturally enhance New Zealand's safety and stability, even considering the large distances between Pacific states. Little fault could be found with implementing appropriate disaster and development aid out of self-interest.
Nonetheless, in today's global village, less affluent states are increasingly making demands on more affluent states for equity and justice--followed by demands for resources and support to achieve equity and justice. New Zealand frequently obliges and is respected for doing so. Are New Zealand's contributions due to only internal, generous choice or is New Zealand required to do so from an obligation to Pacific island risk management? If that responsibility does not exist, should it exist and be made explicit?
Please send your thoughts.
Beach on Pangaimotu Island, Tonga:
Some More Photographs
Greetings from a Friendly, Native Kiwi!
Rainbow Over Lake Te Anau.
Climbing Ben Lomond.
Oystercatchers and Gull.
Risk-taking in Queenstown: Why not Use the Safety Bar? The Hardhats Won't Help.
Jetboating: More risk-taking in (near) Queenstown? Or only the perception thereof?
Raglan Beach, North Island.
Fountain in Christchurch.
The Southern Cross Viewed from Lower Hutt.
Drought on South Island: A Dry River Bed.
Floods on North Island: Professor Russell Blong interviewing a resident of Scott's Ferry in his flood-damaged house.
Aoraki Mount Cook, New Zealand's Highest Point Above Sea Level.
Sunset Over Lake Te Anau: It's a Duck's Life.
Duckingly duckish (9 kb in PDF).
This list is not comprehensive, but is indicative of the work which has been done and the groups and people involved in issues related to New Zealand's vulnerability. The publications listed reflect those in the library of Island Vulnerability.
Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies
Becker, J. and D. Johnston. 2002. "Planning for Earthquake Hazards in New Zealand: A Study of Four Regions". The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 17, no. 1 (Autumn), pp. 2-8.
Becker, J., R. Smith, D. Johnston, and A. Munro. 2001. "Effects of the 1995-1996 Ruapehu eruptions on communities in central North Island, New Zealand, and people's perceptions of volcanic hazards after the event". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 2001-1, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2001-1/becker.htm
Britton, N.R. and G.J. Clark. 2000. "From Response to Resilience: Emergency Management Reform in New Zealand". Natural Hazards Review, vol. 1, no. 3 (August), pp. 145-150.
CCL. 2004. New Zealand Disasters (Fact Sheets). CCL (Christchurch City Library), Christchurch, New Zealand. Downloaded from http://library.christchurch.org.nz/Childrens/NZDisasters in April 2004.
Connell, R.J., C. Beffa, and D.J. Painter. 1998. "Comparison of Observations by Flood Plain Residents with Results froma Two-Dimensional Flood Plain Model: Waihao River, New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ), vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 57-79.
Coyle, F. and J. Fairweather. 2005. "Challenging a place myth: New Zealand's clean green image meets the biotechnology revolution". Area, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 148-158.
Crump, J.A., D.R. Murdoch, and M.G. Baker. 2001. "Emerging Infectious Diseases in an Island Ecosystem: The New Zealand Perspective". Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 5 (September-October), from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no5/crump.htm.
Davies, T.R.. 2002. "Landslide-dambreak floods at Franz Josef Glacier township, Westland, New Zealand: A Risk Assessment". Journal of Hydrology (NZ), vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
Davies, T.R. and M.J. McSaveney. 2001. "Anthropogenic Fanhead Aggradation, Waiho River, Westland, New Zealand", pp. 531-553 in M.P. Mosley (ed.), Gravel-bed Rivers V, The New Zealand Hydrological Society, Wellington, New Zealand.
Davies, T.R.H., M.J. McSaveney, and P.J. Clarkson. 2003. "Anthropogenic Aggradation of the Waiho River, Westland, New Zealand: Microscale Modelling". Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 28, pp. 209-218.
Ericksen, N. 1985. ANUFLOOD in New Zealand Part I: Approaches to Urban Flood-loss Reduction in New Zealand, CRES Working Paper 1986/2 (dated December 1985), full text (427 in PDF).
Glade, T. 1998. "Establishing the Frequency and Magnitude of Landslide-Triggering Rainstorm Events in New Zealand". Environmental Geology, vol. 35, no. 2-3 (August), pp. 160-174.
Glade, T. 2003. "Landslide Occurrence as a Response to Land Use Change: A Review of Evidence from New Zealand". Catena, vol. 51, pp. 297-314.
Glade, T. and M.J. Crozier. 1999. Landslides in New Zealand: A Selected Bibliography. School of Earth Science Research Report No. 1, School of Earth Science, Institute of Geography, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, full text (613 kb in PDF) courtesy of the authors.
The old GNS building in Lower Hutt.
Gough, J. 2000. "Perceptions of risk from natural hazards in two remote New Zealand communities". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 2000-2, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2000-2/gough.htm
Handmer, J.W. 1985. ANUFLOOD in New Zealand Part 2: Background to Flood Loss Measurement, CRES Working Paper 1986/3 (dated December 1985), full text (436 in PDF).
Hicks, G. and H. Campbell (eds.). 1998. Awesome Forces: The Natural Hazards that Threaten New Zealand. Te Papa Press, Wellington, New Zealand.
Hufschmidt, G. and M.J. Crozier. 2008. "Evolution of natural risk: analysing changing landslide hazard in Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand". Natural Hazards, in press.
Huzziff, C.A. and K.R. Ronan. 1999. "Prediction of Children's Coping Following a Natural Disaster - the Mount Ruapehu Eruptions: A prospective study". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 1999-1, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/1999-1/huzziff1.htm
International Global Change Institute in Hamilton.
Isaacs, A. 1997. "The Cave Creek Incident: a REASONed Explanation". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 1997-3, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/1997-3/isaac1.htm
Johnston, D., M.S. Bebbington, C.-D. Lai, B.F. Houghton, and D. Paton. 1999. "Volcanic Hazards Perceptions: Comparative Shifts in Knowledge and Risks." Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 8, No. 2., pp. 118-126.
Johnston, D. and K. Benton. 1998. "Volcanic hazard perceptions in Inglewood, New Zealand". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 1998-2, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/1998-2/johnston.htm
Jongens, R., J. Gibb, and B.V. Alloway. 2007. "A new hazard zonation methodology applied to residentially developed sea-cliffs with very low erosion rates, East Coast Bays, Auckland, New Zealand". Natural Hazards, vol. 40, pp. 223-244.
Latter, J.H. 1985. "Frequency of Eruptions at New Zealand Volcanoes". Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, vol. 18, no. 1 (March), pp. 55-110.
Leonard, G., D. Johnston, D. Paton, and I. Kelman. 2004. "Towards Achieving Community Sustainability in the Face of Natural Hazards: Integrated Lahar Warning System Design on Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand". Presentation at the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior) General Assembly 2004: Volcanism and its Impact on Society, Pucón, Chile, 14-19 November 2004.
Life on the Edge: New Zealand's Natural Hazards and Disasters. 2007. David Bateman Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand.
Macaulay, J. 2004. "Disaster Education in New Zealand". pp. 417-428 in J.P. Stoltman, J. Lidstone, and L.M. Dechano, International Perspectives on Natural Disasters: Occurrence, Mitigation, and Consequences, Kluwer, London, U.K.
Magill, C. and R. Blong. 2005. "Volcanic risk ranking for Auckland, New Zealand. I: Methodology and hazard investigation". Bulletin of Volcanology, in press.
Magill, C. and R. Blong. 2005. "Volcanic risk ranking for Auckland, New Zealand. II: Hazard consequences and risk calculation". Bulletin of Volcanology, in press.
The following documents were downloaded from the MCDEM Website:
National Crisis Management Centre below the Beehive in Wellington.
Miller, M., D. Paton, and D. Johnston. 1999. "Community Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazard Consequences". Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 8, No. 4., pp. 255-260.
Montz, B.E. 1992. "The Effects of Flooding on Residential Property Values in Three New Zealand Communities". Disasters, vol. 16, no. 4 (December), pp. 283-298.
Munro, A.J. 1998. "The Waikato Regional Flood Event of 9-20 July 1998". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 1998-2, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/reports/ajm1.htm
Natural Hazards New Zealand
Natural Hazards Centre
NCCES. 2002. "Climate Change Business Opportunities". Climate-Energy Matters, issue 2, p. 1, NCCES (National Centre for Climate-Energy Solutions), Wellington, New Zealand.
New Zealand Freshwater Floods Literature.
NIWA in Wellington.
Norman, S. 2004. Proceedings from the NZ Recovery Symposium, 12-13 July 2004. Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, Wellington, New Zealand.
NZCCO. 2001 (June). Climate Change Impacts on New Zealand, Ref. ME396. NZCCO (New Zealand Climate Change Office), Wellington, New Zealand.
Optimx. 2002 (August). Waiho River Flooding Risk Assessment for Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management. Report 80295/2.
Paton, D., D. Johnston, and B.F. Houghton. 1998. "Organisational Response to a Volcanic Eruption". Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 7, No. 1., pp. 5-13.
Ronan, K.R. 1997. "The Effects of a 'Benign' Disaster: Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress in Children Following a Series of Volcanic Eruptions". The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, vol. 1997-1, http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/1997-1/ronan1.htm
Rouse, H.L., T.J. Day, and T.R.H. Davies. 2001. "The Transit New Zealand Waiho Workshop", pp. 633-642 in M.P. Mosley (ed.), Gravel-bed Rivers V, The New Zealand Hydrological Society, Wellington, New Zealand.
Taig, T. 2002 (October). Ruapehu Lahar Residual Risk Assessment. A report produced for the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, New Zealand.
Tate, K.R., D.J. Giltrap, A. Parshotam, A.E. Hewitt, D.J. Ross, G.J. Kenny, and R.A. Warrick. 1996. "Impacts of Climate Change on Soils and Land Systems in New Zealand". pp. 190-204 in W.J. Bouma, G.I. Pearman, and M.R. Manning (eds.), Greenhouse: Coping with Climate Change, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Australia.
University of Canterbury, Natural Hazards Research Centre
Whetton, P., A.B. Mullan, and A.B. Pittock. 1996. "Climate-Change Scenarios for Australia and New Zealand". pp. 145-168 in W.J. Bouma, G.I. Pearman, and M.R. Manning (eds.), Greenhouse: Coping with Climate Change, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), Australia.
Avalanches in the Southern Alps.
The material on the Island Vulnerability website is provided as only an information source. Neither definitive advice nor recommendations are implied. Each person or organisation accessing the website is responsible for making their own assessment of the topics discussed and are strongly advised to verify all information. No liability will be accepted for loss or damage incurred as a result of using the material on this website. The appearance of external links on this website does not constitute endorsement of the organisations, information, products, or services contained on that external website.