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Island Vulnerability Borders
http://www.islandvulnerability.org/borders.html


Island Vulnerability explores the challenges which isolated geographies face when dealing with risk and disasters by examining the processes which create, maintain, and could be used to reduce their vulnerability. Border regions are often as isolated and otherwise marginalised geographies as islands, although some capital cities are border settlements such as Asunción, Lomé, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. Thus, border regions may display many risk, disaster, development, and vulnerability challenges similar to islands. The study of borders can therefore inform islands and other isolated geographies while being informed by studies of other isolated geographies. This project would explore the characteristics of border regions and their vulnerabilities. Comparisons and contrasts with islands and other isolated geographies would be made.

This Island Vulnerability Borders page provides examples of borders, illustrating their diversity and often arbitrariness. The images illustrate that, at times, an artificial line is drawn, irrespective of hazards existing, thereby creating vulnerabilities which previously did not exist and which otherwise would not exist, as well as providing opportunities for cross-border resilience. The issues are particularly difficult at points where more than two states meet. In cases where the border is not arbitrary--for example, delineated by a river or mountain range--issues of transboundary hazard, vulnerability, risk, and disaster management emerge. A river might flood both banks of a river with a similar hazard, but a disaster might occur on one bank but not the other indicating different vulnerabilities and different resilience needs.

The borders are:

The triple points are:

The illustration of a border here does not imply any comment on, support for, or refutation of any disputes.


Austria - Switzerland


Austria - Switzerland Border

Austria - Switzerland border, marked on the south side of the bridge over the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Austria - Switzerland Border

Austria - Switzerland border, marked on the north side of the bridge over the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Austria - Switzerland Border

Austria - Switzerland border, looking along the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)



Austria - Liechtenstein

Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with customs officials, looking from Liechtenstein into Austria.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with the potential for customs officials, but no one was there.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with vicious cows on guard, looking from Austria into Liechtenstein.
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein Border


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein border checkpoint with vicious plants and stones on guard, looking from Liechtenstein into Austria (above) and from Austria into Liechtenstein (large photo below).
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Austria - Liechtenstein Border



Austria - Slovakia

Austria - Slovakia Border

Stripes: Looking across Austrian fields towards Slovakia's capital, Bratislava.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)

In the below left image, the legs of two soldiers walking towards me are visible. They told me to stay on the Slovak side, but I explained that I was walking from Slovakia into Austria. They requested my passport, glanced at each stamp in it, and then watched me photographing the border until I wandered over to the Austrian customs checkpoint.

Austria - Slovakia Border

Looking from Slovakia into Austria with the stone monument and signs marking the border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)

Austria - Slovakia Border

Looking from Austria into Slovakia with the stone monument marking the border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)

Austria - Slovakia Border

Looking along the Austria - Slovakia border marked by the stone with the red top.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2005)



Canada - U.S.A.

Canada - U.S.A. border at Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border at Niagara Falls, with New York on the left and Ontario on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border underneath the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls: Looking from Ontario across to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls: the line between the different concretes delineates the border, with New York on the bottom (with the grate) and Ontario at the top.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

A light pole marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls. From the Canadian side, it cost fifty cents (in either currency) to walk onto the bridge! But it was free from the American side.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Plaque marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)

Plaque marking the Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls

Canada - U.S.A. border on the Rainbow Bridge, Niagara Falls.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2008)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at the St. Clair River

Canada - U.S.A. border at the St. Clair River with Ontario on the left and Michigan on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2006)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at the St. Clair River and Lake Huron

Canada - U.S.A. border looking across the south end of Lake Huron from Ontario into Michigan.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2006)


Canada - U.S.A. Border across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York

Canada - U.S.A. border, looking across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


Canada - U.S.A. Border across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York

Canada - U.S.A. border, looking across the St. Lawrence River from Wolfe Island, Ontario to New York.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


Canada - U.S.A. Border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands

Canada - U.S.A. border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands. Looking from Ontario to New York (above) and from New York to Canadian customs and immigration in Ontario (below)
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)

Canada - U.S.A. Border at Hill Island in the Thousand Islands



China - Hong Kong

China - Hong Kong Border

Looking towards China from Hong Kong from Lok Ma Chau station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong Border

The pedestrian crossing point between China and Hong Kong in Lok Ma Chau station as viewed from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong Border

The bridge of San Sham Road between China and Hong Kong, seen from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong Border

The bridge of San Sham Road between China and Hong Kong, seen from Hong Kong.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Hong Kong Border

Looking along the railway tracks from Hong Kong into China at Lo Wu station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)



China - Macau

China - Macau Border

Immigration checks on the north side of Macau for entering into China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau Border

Looking from Sun Yat Sen park in Macau towards Zhuhai Railway Station.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau Border

Looking from Sun Yat Sen park in Macau towards China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)


China - Macau Border

Looking from Barra, Macau into China.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2016)



Denmark - Sweden

Aerial view of the Øresund/Öresund Bridge connecting Denmark and Sweden

The Øresund/Öresund Bridge connecting Denmark on the left to Sweden on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2010)



Malaysia - Singapore

Malaysia - Singapore Border

Looking from Woodlands, Singapore to Johor, Malaysia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore Border

The apartment buildings of Singapore as seen from Johor, Malaysia.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore Border

On board a bus in Malaysia, looking down at the causeway that crosses into Singapore.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)


Malaysia - Singapore Border

The Malaysia-Singapore border on the Woodlands-Johor causeway.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2013)



Norway - Sweden

Norway - Sweden Border

At Svinesund with Norway on the left and Sweden on the right.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)



Switzerland - Germany

Switzerland - Germany Border

A Switzerland - Germany border checkpoint looking from Switzerland towards Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Switzerland - France

Switzerland - France Border

A closed checkpoint of the Switzerland - France border looking from France towards Switzerland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France Border

After having crossed the closed checkpoint of the Switzerland - France border, looking from Switzerland towards France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France Border

Switzerland - France border with customs.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Switzerland - France Border

A ditch marking the Switzerland - France border, looking from France towards Switzerland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Switzerland - Italy

Switzerland - Italy Border

Switzerland - Italy border looking from Switzerland towards Italy.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Switzerland - Liechtenstein

Various vantage points of the Switzerland - Liechtenstein border.
(All photos copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)

Switzerland - Liechtenstein Border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein Border


Austria - Liechtenstein Border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein Border

Switzerland - Liechtenstein Border



Germany - France

Germany - France Border

Germany - France border marked by white lines in the road, looking from Germany towards France.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Germany - France Border

Germany - France border marked by white lines in the road, looking from France towards Germany.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Germany - France Border

Looking south along the Germany - France border marked by the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)


Germany - France Border

Looking north along the Germany - France border marked by the River Rhine.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



France - Monaco

France - Monaco Border

France - Monaco border looking from Monaco into France. The car straddles the border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco Border

France - Monaco border looking from France into Monaco.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco Border

Looking at the France - Monaco border with France on the right and Monaco on the left.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)


France - Monaco Border

France - Monaco border, looking from France down the steps towards Monaco.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2009)



Ireland - U.K.

Ireland - U.K. Border

Looking from County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland towards Swanlinbar, Eire. The border is marked by the end of the new road surface on the U.K. side and the start of permission to pass under risky conditions on the Irish side. Fortunately, both countries request that you drive on the left side of the road.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 1997)



Austria - Liechtenstein - Switzerland

Austria - Liechtenstein - Switzerland Northern Triple Point

Austria - Liechtenstein - Switzerland Northern Triple Point looking along the Austrian-Liechtenstein border to Switzerland.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2003)



France - Germany - Switzerland

France - Germany - Switzerland Triple Point

France - Germany - Switzerland Triple Point looking from France towards the German-Swiss border.
(Copyright Ilan Kelman 2002)



Contact Island Vulnerability.


The material on the Island Vulnerability website is provided as only an information source. Neither definitive advice nor recommendations are implied. Each person or organisation accessing the website is responsible for making their own assessment of the topics discussed and are strongly advised to verify all information. No liability will be accepted for loss or damage incurred as a result of using the material on this website. The appearance of external links on this website does not constitute endorsement of the organisations, information, products, or services contained on that external website.